Facebook, the world’s most popular social networking website, boasts approximately 1.13 billion daily active users and generated a staggering revenue of 27.63 billion in 2016. Furthermore, Instagram, the second most beloved social media network globally, is also under the ownership of the company. In the face of intense competition, Facebook’s ability to maintain its dominant position and consistently increase its revenue year after year is truly remarkable.
While its primary competitor, Google Plus, failed to come close to Facebook’s success, it is worthwhile to examine the Facebook Business Model. Before delving into how Facebook generates its revenue and its Revenue Model, let us first explore the companies that fall under the Facebook umbrella and its overarching business strategy.
|Meta Platforms generate revenue through advertising sales|
|Advertising sales are the primary source of Meta’s revenue|
|Meta reported a decline in daily active users in 2021|
|Reality Labs focuses on augmented and virtual reality technologies|
|Oculus VR headset is among the products offered by Reality Labs|
|Meta discloses diversity and inclusion data for its employees and general management|
- Unveiling the Journey: A Concise History of Facebook
- The Facebook Family of Companies
- Meta’s Business Ventures
- Ownership of Facebook
- How Does Meta Make Money?
- Facebook’s Business Strategy
- Understanding Facebook’s Expense Sources
- Facebook’s Business Model
- Facebook’s Competitors in the Social Media Landscape
- Facebook’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
Unveiling the Journey: A Concise History of Facebook
Facebook’s evolution began in 2003 when Harvard students Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes created Facemash, an appearance-based judgment platform. It faced a quick shutdown due to policy violations. In January of the following year, they introduced thefacebok.com, a social network exclusively for Harvard students. It expanded to other universities, reaching over one million users by the end of 2004.
In 2005, it dropped the “the” and became Facebook, attracting high schoolers and international students, and boosting its user count to six million. Over the years, Facebook opened its doors to anyone above 13, surpassing MySpace in 2008 to become the leading social network. In 2012, it became a public company, raising $16 billion in its IPO and achieving a valuation of $102.4 billion.
The Facebook Family of Companies
The Facebook business model encompasses a range of diverse companies:
|Facebook Payments Inc.||Facilitating revenue generation through payment services.|
|Atlas||An ad-serving and measurement platform for advertisers.|
|A popular media-sharing platform.|
|Onavo||Provider of mobile utility applications.|
|Parse||Provider of back-end infrastructure services for apps.|
|Moves||An exercise tracking application for monitoring steps.|
|Oculus||Pioneering virtual reality technology.|
|LiveRail||Empowering publishers with a monetization platform.|
|A widely used instant messaging client.|
|Masquerade||A mobile application with visual filters.|
Meta’s Business Ventures
- Facebook: A leading social media platform enabling users to connect, communicate, and share with friends, family, and like-minded individuals. Facebook generates its primary revenue through advertising, leveraging its wide user base and various features like Groups, Watch, and Marketplace;
- Instagram: A popular photo and video-sharing application where individuals and businesses worldwide can showcase their content. Meta monetizes Instagram through advertising, capitalizing on its users’ engagement and their inclination to discover and purchase products;
- Messenger and WhatsApp: Messenger serves as an instant messaging application that connects users across the Facebook and Instagram platforms, facilitating communication with friends, family, groups, and businesses. WhatsApp, on the other hand, is a widely used messaging application offering secure and simple communication for individuals and businesses globally. Both apps provide Meta with opportunities for monetization, including advertising and premium features that enhance customer support;
- Reality Labs: Meta’s Reality Labs is dedicated to developing augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) hardware, software, and content. AR/VR technologies are instrumental in Meta’s vision of creating the metaverse, a virtual world. Reality Labs offers Oculus virtual reality headsets for consumers and a marketplace where users can access and purchase apps and games for these devices. Additionally, Meta Portal provides dedicated devices for video calling, catering to the needs of consumers seeking enhanced collaboration and connections with friends and family.
Ownership of Facebook
Since its inception, Facebook has been owned by Mark Zuckerberg through his holding group, Facebook Inc. However, following the acquisition of Instagram and WhatsApp, Zuckerberg made the strategic decision to rebrand the holding group, separating the Facebook social network from the larger entity. In October 2021, Facebook Inc. was renamed Meta Inc., with Mark Zuckerberg serving as its CEO and retaining ownership of all the companies within the group.
How Does Meta Make Money?
Facebook (the platform and apps) are free to users. So how does the company make any money at all? As noted above, its primary source of revenue is through digital advertising. Due to the enormous number of users and social media reach, advertisers large and small consider Meta a prime opportunity to present ads to viewers. Meta provides various ways for them to advertise, such as self-serve and targeted ads.
Marketers can target specific types of people based on different factors such as age, gender, location, interests, and behaviors. They buy ads that are placed on various Meta social media platforms and apps, including Facebook, Instagram, Messenger, and WhatsApp. Ads also appear on affiliated third-party applications and websites.
Ad prices are determined by an auction system based on bids and performance. Businesses are charged only for the number of clicks ads receive or the number of impressions (the number of times the ad is displayed).
A business that wants to run an advertisement sets a maximum budget and is charged a monthly billing based on the performance of the ad. While advertising provides Meta with the majority of its revenue, it’s not the company’s sole income focus. In fact, by changing its name from Facebook to Meta Platforms, Meta signaled its plan to develop sources of revenue beyond advertising. Its Reality Labs is one such source.
Facebook’s Business Strategy
Facebook’s business strategy revolves around expanding its user base and using targeted ads for revenue. It launched initiatives like internet.org to provide affordable or free internet access to unconnected populations. Acquisitions, such as Snaptu and Onavo, helped improve device compatibility and enhance user experiences.
Once users have access to Facebook, the focus shifts to monetization. Facebook successfully increased average revenue per user (ARPU) in the “Rest Of World” region, with a significant rise in ARPU from $0.28 in 2012 to $1.13 in Q2’16. Increased daily usage time and ad impressions on Facebook, Instagram, and Messenger contribute to its substantial revenue generation and ongoing financial success.
Understanding Facebook’s Expense Sources
To comprehend how Facebook generates revenue, we must also consider its various expenses. Over the years, the company has witnessed a substantial increase in its yearly expenditures, which encompass the following key categories:
- Cost of Revenue:
This includes expenses associated with the infrastructure that supports Facebook’s operations. It encompasses factors such as facility and server equipment costs, depreciation, energy, and bandwidth expenses, as well as support and maintenance expenditures.
- Research & Development:
Despite being the world’s leading social media network, Facebook faces competition and aims to sustain its position at the forefront. To achieve this, the company invests significantly in research and development. R&D plays a critical role in enhancing user experience and continually improving and expanding Facebook’s offerings.
- Marketing and Sales Costs:
As a prominent global brand, Facebook incurs substantial expenses to maintain its market position. Marketing and sales costs encompass efforts to improve user interfaces and services, attract and retain users, support marketers and developers, and invest in product promotion. These costs include amortization of intangible assets, payroll expenses, and other marketing and sales-related expenditures.
- General and Administrative:
General and administrative expenses cover compensation for administrative department employees, legal and accounting expenses, and other administrative costs associated with running the company.
Facebook’s Business Model
Facebook’s Customer Segments:
- Users: Representing one-third of the world’s population, users form the largest customer segment of Facebook. They engage with friends and others, share content, and access entertainment and information. While users do not directly generate revenue for Facebook, their presence is vital in attracting advertisers;
- Businesses and advertisers: This segment contributes to Facebook’s revenue through advertising. Brands and businesses leverage Facebook’s targeted advertising capabilities to reach a qualified audience based on user data collected by the platform;
- Developers: The smallest customer segment comprises developers who create apps and games using Facebook’s platform.
Facebook’s Value Propositions:
- Users: Facebook allows users to connect and stay in touch with loved ones, offering entertainment, information, and a platform for sharing experiences and interests;
- Advertisers: Facebook provides targeted advertising options, allowing brands to reach their specific target audience effectively. The user-friendly advertising tools cater to both small businesses and larger enterprises;
- Developers: Facebook offers a robust platform for developing apps and games, providing exposure and a network of advertising service providers.
- Facebook’s primary distribution channels are its website and app, where users connect and advertisers engage with their audience. The platform offers various channels, including feed, notifications, direct messages, stories, and integration with other products such as Instagram and WhatsApp.
Facebook’s Key Activities:
- Key activities include platform development and maintenance to ensure a positive user experience, infrastructure management, content moderation, user acquisition and engagement, data storage and security, talent acquisition, sales and marketing efforts, and fostering good practices within the network.
Facebook’s Key Partners:
- Content developers: Collaborating with developers for videos, games, and other content;
- Operating system, browser, and hardware developers: Working with partners to ensure compatibility and optimal performance;
- Digital influencers: Partnering with influential individuals who promote engagement on the platform;
- Businesses and brands: Collaborating with advertisers and companies that advertise or sell directly on Facebook;
- Marketing agencies: Working alongside agencies to facilitate advertising campaigns.
Facebook’s Cost Structure:
- Facebook’s cost structure includes platform maintenance, data storage, user acquisition costs, research and development investments, marketing and advertising expenses, customer support, general and administrative costs, and ensuring regulatory compliance.
In the dynamic world of social media, the company faces competition from various platforms and apps. Let’s delve into some of Facebook’s key competitors:
|Competitor||Description||Active Daily Users|
|Snap||Launched in 2011, Snap is a photo- and video-sharing app with disappearing content.||280 million|
|Established in 2003, LinkedIn connects recruiters, employers, and job seekers in a professional network.||600 million|
|Founded in 2006, Twitter is a microblogging service for short messages called tweets.||180 million|
|YouTube||Launched in 2005, YouTube is a popular video-sharing platform with billions of regular users.||2 billion|
|Created in 2009, Pinterest is a social networking site for saving and discovering creative ideas.||480 million|
|TikTok||Founded in 2012, TikTok is a social media app for creating and sharing short videos and live broadcasts.||1 billion|
Facebook’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
- Strong Brand: Despite its current ranking at 13th, Facebook remains a highly valuable brand, valued at over $35 billion;
- Diversified Portfolio: Acquisitions such as WhatsApp, Instagram, Messenger, and Oculus contribute to Facebook’s financial strength and diversify its offerings;
- Market Dominance: Facebook, along with its subsidiaries WhatsApp, Messenger, and Instagram, holds a significant market share in the social media industry;
- Loyal Customer Base: With approximately 30% of the world’s population using Facebook’s platforms, the company enjoys a vast and dedicated user base;
- Attractive Employer: Facebook’s HR policies position it as one of the top employers globally, allowing it to attract and retain top talent;
- Visionary Leadership: Mark Zuckerberg’s leadership provides stability, sustainability, and innovation for the business;
- Research and Development: Facebook invests a significant portion of its revenue in R&D, positioning itself as a leader in innovation;
- Effective Marketing Strategy: Facebook’s wide user base and targeted advertising capabilities contribute to its revenue generation.
- Privacy Concerns: Facebook’s reputation has suffered due to privacy issues and inadequate data protection measures;
- Overdependence on Advertising: The company heavily relies on social media and advertising for its revenue, limiting diversification opportunities;
- Fake News: Facebook faces criticism for its struggle to control the spread of misleading information.
- Portfolio Diversification: Facebook can leverage its resources to expand into new industries and reduce dependence on social media and advertising;
- Integration with Other Applications: Opportunities exist for Facebook to integrate with various applications, such as e-commerce, podcasts, and gaming;
- Targeting Different Audiences: By introducing new features, Facebook can attract additional target segments beyond its current user base;
- Acquisitions: Facebook has the potential to continue acquiring companies, even outside the social media industry.
- Competition: Declining user numbers and the emergence of new platforms pose a threat to Facebook’s market share;
- Regulatory Challenges: Evolving regulations surrounding data safety, user privacy, and intellectual property may impact Facebook’s business model;
- Data Breaches: Security breaches and exposure of personal information can damage user trust and reputation;
- Digital Taxation: The adoption of digital taxes, such as in the UK and European Union, could negatively impact Facebook’s profits;
- Reputation Damage: Scandals, fake news, and other controversies have tarnished Facebook’s reputation and could lead to reduced usage.
Facebook’s business model has transformed online connectivity and content consumption, solidifying its dominance in the social media industry through platforms like Instagram, WhatsApp, and Oculus. Its primary revenue stream relies on targeted digital advertising to capitalize on its vast user base. Despite privacy concerns and competition, Facebook thrives by fostering a strong brand, cultivating a loyal customer base, embracing visionary leadership, and investing in research and development. By diversifying its portfolio and venturing beyond social media, the company aims to adapt to evolving market trends and explore new opportunities for growth and innovation.